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Budgeting for Baby
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As the saying goes, "Parents are people who carry pictures in their wallets—where their money used to be." The U.S. Department of Agriculture estimates that the cost of raising a child born in 2013 through age 17 averages $245,340 for a typical middle-income family—and that doesn't include the cost of college tuition.1 As you consider your growing family's fiscal needs, take a look at key areas to address before and after your new child comes home.
Health Care
Your first baby-planning step is to choose the benefits you need from your health care plan. A managed care plan, such as a health maintenance organization, can reduce out-of-pocket expenses over a traditional plan, which often requires you to pay at least 20% of care costs. The savings can be significant for families with children.
For medical expenses not covered by your health insurance, find out if your firm offers a medical reimbursement account (MRA) or a health savings account (HSA). Your contributions can pay for items such as orthodontic care, insurance deductibles, and eyeglasses.
Child Care
Fortunately, there are certain tax breaks especially for parents. The Child and Dependent Care Tax Credit provides a credit of between 20% and 35% of up to $3,000 ($6,000 for two or more children) of child care expenses (within limits), depending on your income. Some states also offer additional tax breaks for child care costs, so check with your tax or financial advisor for details.
An even better deal, if available, could be an employer-sponsored dependent care account, where you contribute an annual amount in pretax dollars to be used for qualifying dependent care expenses. But keep in mind that you must decide before the beginning of each year how much you will contribute, and you lose what you don't spend. Also, account contributions reduce dollar-for-dollar your federal child care tax credit, making it impossible for many parents to take advantage of both tax breaks.
Insurance
Your child's arrival should also prompt you to protect against potential loss of income by obtaining or increasing disability and life insurance. With disability coverage, try to replace about 60% of your income. With life insurance, assume you will need coverage equal to 5 to 10 times your family's annual income. Employer-sponsored coverage is often the least expensive, so check to see if you or your spouse's employer offers it.
Legacy Planning
It is important now to draw up a will designating a guardian for your child should you and your spouse die together. If you or your spouse dies without a will (intestate), a judge decides who will be appointed your child's guardian. As a result, it could be someone you hadn't wanted in this role. Finally, your will should provide for guardianship that applies to both your current and future children.
Estimated Expenses by Year
Typical Expense Range: Year by Year5
YEAR 1
Items  
Crib with mattress $300-$500
Bedding and accessories $100-$300
Clothes $400-$800
Diapers (disposable) $500-$1,000
Maternity/nursing clothes $600-$1,200
Baby food/formula $1,250-$1,750
Nursery misc., high chair, toys $300-$500
Stroller, car seat, baby carrier $300-$400
Miscellaneous items $400-$500
Other  
12-week maternity leave (six weeks unpaid)2 $5,800
Day care (40 weeks) $6,000-$12,000
Term life insurance premiums3 $300-$600
Disability insurance4 $1,000-$2,000
Drawing up a will $300-$600
Estimated Total: $17,500-$28,000
YEAR 2
Items  
Clothes $412-$824
Diapers (disposable) $515-$1,030
Food $1,500-$2,000
Toys $309-$515
Miscellaneous items $412-$515
Other  
Day care (50 weeks) $8,000-$16,000
Insurance premiums $1,300-$2,600
Estimated Total: $12,500-$23,500
YEAR 3
Items  
Bed $400-$600
Clothes $450-$900
Food $1,545-$2,060
Toys $320-$530
Miscellaneous items $425-$530
Other  
Day care (50 weeks) $8,240-$16,480
Insurance premiums $1,300-$2,600
Estimated Total: $13,000-$25,000
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1Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, News Release No. 0179.14, August 18, 2014.
2Assumes $50,000 annual income for mother taking leave.
3Assumes $500,000 face value, 30-year level term. Rates vary by gender, state of residence, insurer, and health assessment factors.
4Assumes 60% income replacement for an individual earning $50,000 per year who can no longer work in his or her customary occupation. Rates vary by gender, state of residence, insurer, and health assessment factors.
5Except for insurance, values assume 3% annual inflation.

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